Osteoclasts are found on top of or next to existing bone tissue, sometimes in close proximity to osteoblasts. There is on-going race between the two cell types; osteoblasts make bone tissue while.. Osteoclasts are giant cells containing between 10 and 20 nuclei. They closely attach to the bone matrix by binding its surface integrins to a bone protein called vitronectin. This close apposition seals off an area of the bone beneath the osteoclast and allows the osteoclast to form a microenvironment that resorbs bone . However, the loss of function in osteoclasts, problems with their differentiation and decrease in their number lead to bone osteosclerosis/osteopetrosis. On the other hand, an increase in their number or function induces bone. Osteoclasts. Osteoclasts are large, multinucleated cells that are of the macrophage lineage. They resorb bone by secreting organic acids, which dissolve hydroxyapatite, and lysosomal enzymes, which break down the osteoid matrix. At the bone surface, osteoclasts lie in Howship's lacunae, surface depressions caused by the resorption of bone
Further location-dependent analysis revealed that the increase in osteoclast size in tumour-bearing mice was due to large osteoclasts in direct contact with the tumour cells (Fig. 6b). Osteoclasts in contact with tumour had a mean size of 3.3 × 10 −4 mm 2 compared to those distal to the tumour with 1.3 × 10 −4 mm 2 on day 15 ( p < 0.001) and 3.3 × 10 −4 mm 2 compared to 1.5 × 10 −4 mm 2 on day 19 ( p < 0.001) Osteoclast, large multinucleated cell responsible for the dissolution and absorption of bone. Bone is a dynamic tissue that is continuously being broken down and restructured in response to such influences as structural stress and the body's requirement for calcium. The osteoclasts are the mediators of the continuous destruction of bone The osteocytes or mature bone cells are located in the lacunae. Osteocytes are star-shaped cells. They have long extensions that project into the canaliculi. The membrane that covers the outer surface of the bone is called the periosteum Under most conditions, resorbed bone is nearly precisely replaced in location and amount by new bone. Thus, it has long been recognized that bone loss through osteoclast-mediated bone resorption and bone replacement through osteoblast-mediated bone formation are tightly coupled processes. Abundant data conclusively demonstrate that osteoblasts.
Osteocytes are located within the bones in our body, and are more abundant than osteoblasts or osteoclasts, meaning that there are billions of them located throughout our body Osteoclasts travel over the surface of the bone matrix and secrete acids and enzymes to disintegrate it, forming a little bit on the surface of the bone. In simple words, an osteoblast builds the bone, whereas an osteoclast eats up the bone so that it can be reshaped into a stronger and resilient load-bearing structure Osteoclasts originate from hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), which are contained in the bone marrow. These are the same stem cells which produce all other types of blood cell, including red blood..
The cell responsible for bone resorption, or breakdown, is the osteoclast, which is found on bone surfaces, is multinucleated, and originates from monocytes and macrophages (two types of white blood cells) rather than from osteogenic cells. Osteoclasts continually break down old bone while osteoblasts continually form new bone Therefore, we determined the effect of osteoclasts and their secretion of MMP-9 on angiogenesis. Osteoclasts were stimulated in vivo or in metatarsal explants with receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), an important and specific osteoclast differentiation factor, or parathyroid hormone related protein (PTHrP), which stimulates osteoclastogenesis primarily through induction of. Osteoclast Multinucleation: Review of Current Literature Joe Kodama and Takashi Kaito * Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan; email@example.com * Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org; Tel.: +81-(6)-6879-355 Osteoblasts, lining the surface of bone, secrete collagen and the organic matrix of bone (osteoid), which becomes calcified soon after it has been deposited. As they become trapped in the organic matrix, they become osteocytes. Osteocytes maintain bone tissue 2.1. DC-STAMP Is a Transmembrane Protein. DC-STAMP is encoded by the gene Tm7sf4 located on chromosome 8 in humans (locus 8q22.3).Tm7sf4 is a single, widely conserved gene in mammals. It contains four exons and three introns, in which seven putative transmembrane regions and an intracellular C-terminus are located between exon 2 and exon 4 [23,24]..
The osteoclast is the primary target of calcitonin, but receptors also are present in the kidney, osteocytes, brain, testes, placenta, and lung [210,213]. CTR isoforms generated from alternative splicing have been described in a number of normal tissues and tumors Types of Bone Cells. Both the compact and spongy bone tissues are composed of 3 main types of bone cells. These bone cells have distinct features, structure, and considered essential functions. These bone cells are Osteoclasts, Osteoblasts, and Osteocytes. These bone cells are embedded in the matrix of bony tissue and perform many vital functions The second film in the bone biology series describes the role and functions of the cells responsible for breaking down bone tissue (osteoclasts) and building..
Being located in most tissues where they represent 1-5% of the hematopoietic cells, they act as sentinels of the immune system capturing and processing antigens and instructing adaptive immune cells . Contrasting with MNs and Mϕs, they have the unique capacity to migrate to the T cell zones of lymphoid organs where they present or cross-present antigens thanks to their expression of major histocompatibility complexes (MHC)-I and -II and activate naive T cells Osteocalcin, also known as bone gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing protein, is a small noncollagenous protein hormone found in bone and dentin, first identified as a calcium-binding protein in chick bone. Because osteocalcin has gla domains, its synthesis is vitamin K dependent. In humans, osteocalcin is encoded by the BGLAP gene. Its receptors include GPRC6A, GPR158, and possibly a third, yet-to-be-identified receptor
Location. more metabolically active cells at the bone surface. less active cells in more central bone. activated by disruption of the more peripheral osteoblasts. Osteoclasts. osteoclast attaches to bone matrix at sealing zone. attach to bone surfaces via integrins on osteoclast surface The osteoclast clear zone is a specialised cell-extracellular matrix adhesion structure. J. Cell Sci. 108, 2729.
the ectopic expression of NFATc1 in osteoclast precursor cells induces osteoclast differentiation in these cells de-spite the absence of RANKL. These results clearly indi-cate that NFATc1 is an indispensable factor for osteoclast differentiation in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, understand-ing the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulatio Osteoclast While osteoblasts and osteocytes have the same source, and are, in fact, different stages of the same cells, osteoclasts are derived from cells in the bone marrow. The calcium in the bones acted on by osteoclasts is then sent back into the bloodstream Bendixen, A. C. et al. IL-4 inhibits osteoclast formation through a direct action on osteoclast precursors via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ1. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 98 , 2443. There are three special types of cells that are found only in the bone. These cell names all start with OSTEO because that is the Greek word for bone Further location-dependent analysis revealed that the increase in osteoclast size in tumour-bearing mice was due to large osteoclasts in direct contact with the tumour cells (Fig. 6b). Osteoclasts in contact with tumour had a mean size of 3.3 × 10 −4 mm 2 compared to those distal to the tumour with 1.3 × 10 −4 mm 2 on day 15 ( p < 0.001.
Location matters: Osteoblast and osteoclast distribution is modified by the presence and proximity to breast cancer cells in vivo May 2012 Clinical & Experimental Metastasis 29(8 Mononuclear osteoclast progenitor cells use vascular routes to migrate to specific locations in the skeleton, where they fuse with each other to become mature osteoclasts (Baron and Kneissel, 2013; Teitelbaum, 2000) This is a picture of an osteoclast sitting in a 'Howship's lacuna' in the endosteum.These recesses are areas of bone that the osteoclasts have eroded away. Can you identify the osteoclast, and its 'ruffled border' which is full of fine finger like projections that insert into the bone matrix Osteoclast: A cell that nibbles at and breaks down bone and is responsible for bone resorption. Osteoclasts are large multinucleate cells (cells with more than one nucleus) that differentiate from another type of cell called a macrophage. In normal bone, bone formation and bone resorption are closely coupled processes involved in the normal.
Osteoclast Inhibition and Bone Formation The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government Summary We investigated whether the age of the bones endogenously exerts control over the bone resorption ability of the osteoclasts, and found that osteoclasts preferentially develop and resorb bone on aged bone. These findings indicate that the bone matrix itself plays a role in targeted remodeling of aged bones. Introduction Osteoclasts resorb aging bone in order to repair damage and. Osteoblast, large cell responsible for the synthesis and mineralization of bone during both initial bone formation and later bone remodeling. Osteoblasts form a closely packed sheet on the surface of the bone, from which cellular processes extend through the developing bone. They arise from th Browse 36 osteoclast stock photos and images available, or search for osteoblast or osteoporosis to find more great stock photos and pictures. osteoclast, illustration - osteoclast stock illustrations. osteoclast cell, illustration - osteoclast stock illustrations. osteocyte bone cell, sem - osteoclast stock pictures, royalty-free photos & images
Although the roles of these molecules in osteoclast differentiation are well known, fundamental questions remain unsolved, including the exact location of the RANKL-RANK interaction and the in vivo temporal and spatial information on the transformation of hematopoietic cells into bone-resorbing osteoclasts. This review focuses on the importance. Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) is a rare, distinctive soft tissue neoplasm, typically occurring in the distal extremities of young adult patients. Although CCS shows melanocytic differentiation, it is now clear that it is clinicopathologically and genetically distinct from conventional malignant melanoma. The 'osteoclast-rich tumour of the gastrointestinal tract with features resembling clear cell. Bone consists of four types of cells: osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteocytes, and osteoprogenitor (or osteogenic) cells. Each cell type has a unique function and is found in different locations in bones. The osteoblast, the bone cell responsible for forming new bone, is found in the growing portions of bone, including the periosteum and endosteum
Entry name i: OSTF1_HUMAN: Accession i: Q92882 Primary (citable) accession number: Q92882 Secondary accession number(s): Q5W126, Q96IJ4: Entry history i: Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: : December 1, 2000: Last sequence update: : May 30, 2006: Last modified: : June 2, 2021: This is version 201 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. See complete history.: Entry status i: Reviewed. MMnet is a co-expression network comprising 190 osteoclast-enriched eQTLs that are regulated in trans by Trem2 (Kang et al., 2014).It was generated using primary macrophages from a heterogenous rat population derived from experimental crossing of inbred Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and LEW rats
Osteoclast. While osteoblasts and osteocytes have the same source, and are, in fact, different stages of the same cells, osteoclasts are derived from cells in the bone marrow. Osteoclasts perform the job of breaking down the composite material in bones, with the help of an acid and collagenase proteins. The calcium in the bones acted on by. fracture repair. They are located in the inner, cellular layer of the periosteum, the endosteum that lines the marrow cavity, and the lining of vascular passage-ways in the matrix. Compact bone Although compact bone appears solid to the unaided eye, microscopically it contains considerable detail. The structural unit of compact bone is the.
Although osteoclasts are derived from hematopoietic cells, the exact identity of their precursors and the mechanism for their recruitment onto bone surfaces remain unclear. We wished to study their differentiation in the fetal rat calvaria and to locate its source of osteoclast precursor cells. Osteoclasts were detected by neutral red staining or cytochemical reaction for acid phosphatase of. Cytoplasmic PCNA is located in the actin belt and involved in osteoclast differentiation Donge Tang1,2,*, Xiaohui Liu1,*, Kezhi Chen1, Zhipeng Li1, Yong Dai2, Jiake Xu3, Huan-Tian Zhang1,4, Xuejuan Gao1, Langxia Liu1 1Key Laboratory of Functional Protein Research of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes and MOE Ke Osteoblasts are more active and osteoclast maintain normal activity when there is mechanical stress placed on bones. If bone is analogous to a bank, calcium is analogous to _____. money. Where in the diagram is hyaline cartilage located? Select all that apply. A & E
Osteoclast-like giant cells have been noted in various malignant tumors, such as, carcinomas of pancreas and liver and leiomyosarcomas of non-cutaneous locations, such as, uterus and rectum. We were unable to find any reported case of a leiomyosarcoma of the skin where osteoclast-like giant cells were present in the tumor. We report a case of a 59-year-old woman with a cutaneous leiomyosarcoma. location. Levels of IL-8, the key mediator of anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA)-induced bone and human osteoclast precursor cells and mature osteoclasts, leading to their differentiation and enhancement of effector functions: bone resorption and production of inﬂammator Also located in the niche are a second subset of macrophages, namely bone marrow-derived macrophages (BM Mφ). We previously reported that a subpopulation of OM co-express both CD166 and CSF1R, the receptor for macrophage colony-stimulating factor (MCSF), and that OM form more bone-resorbing osteoclasts than BM Mφ Q8WXQ2: Entry history i: Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: : November 13, 2007: Last sequence update: : November 2, 2010: Last modified: : June 2, 2021: This is version 146 of the entry and version 3 of the sequence. See complete history.: Entry status i: Reviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot): Annotation program: Chordata Protein Annotation Program: Disclaimer: Any medical or genetic information. In contrast, Lonza's Osteoclast Precursor Cell System yields up to 50% conversion of precursors to osteoclasts when differentiated. Cryopreserved Poietics TM Human Osteoclast Precursor Cells (OCPs) are guaranteed to contain ≥1 million viable cells per ampoule and test positive for osteoclast activity and stain for TRAP following differentiation
Using this validated model, we demonstrated that osteomacs are increased post-OVX on both trabecular and endocortical bone. Dual F4/80 (pan-macrophage marker) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining revealed osteomacs frequently located near TRAP + osteoclasts and contained TRAP + intracellular vesicles. Using an in vivo. Introduction. Bone homeostasis relies on the balance between the resorption of bones by osteoclasts and formation of bones by the osteoblasts. 1 Osteoclasts are the cells responsible for bone resorption, a process critical to maintaining healthy bones. 2 Dysregulation of osteoclastic bone resorption could cause osteoporosis and malignant osteolytic bone disease. 3 Osteoporosis is a common. disease of impaired osteoclast function that leads to bones that are abnormally dense but brittle and prone to fracture; caused by mutations in genes for osteoclast resorption. osteoporosis. disease of low bone mass that occurs due to the inability of bone formation to keep up with bone resorption. Usually seen in post meno-pausal women and the. The extracellular bone resorbing lacuna of the osteoclast shares many characteristics with the degradative lysosome of antigen-presenting cells. γ-Interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT) enhances antigen processing within lysosomes through direct reduction of antigen disulfides and maintenance of cysteine protease activity. In this study, we found the osteoclastogenic cytokine. Developing bone showing an osteoclast located in its Howship's lacuna. The osteoclast is a large multinucleated cell which shows a ruffled border at a site of active bone resorption
. OLGCs in association with breast tumors are believed to represent a fusion of several cells of monocyte lineage located in the stroma. The significance of this finding is inconclusive. The 5-year survival rate is about 70 % versus an average overall survival rate of 72 % for similarly staged breast carcinomas [3, 10] Osteoporosis is age-related deterioration in bone mass and micro-architecture. Denosumab is a novel human monoclonal antibody for osteoporosis. It is a receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) inhibitor, which binds to and inhibits osteoblast-produced RANKL, in turn reduces the binding between RANKL and osteoclast receptor RANK, therefore decreases osteoclast-mediated bone. At this location, the enzyme is thought to be secreted out of the cells, together with the matrix degradation products. After this stage, both entities leak into the circulation at a rate that corresponds to the amount of resorption activity being undertaken by the osteoclast. The question arises as to the role of TRAP within these vesicles Under osteoporotic conditions, Rankl acts on osteoblast progenitors located at the mineralized matrix of vertebral bodies and on macrophages as osteoclast progenitors. In osteoblast progenitors, Rankl either directly or indirectly induces the production and release of Cxcl9l
Osteoporosis (OP) is a highly prevalent orthopedic condition in postmenopausal women and the elderly. Currently, OP treatments mainly include bisphosphonates, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) antibody therapy, selective estrogen receptor modulators, teriparatide (PTH1-34), and menopausal hormone therapy. However, increasing evidence has indicated these treatments may. In terms of osteoclast modulation, both regimes with a low average loading amplitude of ~0.7Pa (Square-LALF 50%, 0.8-fold and Error-LALF 50%, 0.8-fold) reduced the amount of osteoclast differentiation compared to the osteoclast assay positive control, regardless of their difference in shear stress rate Sobacchi et al. (2007) analyzed the TNFSF11 gene in 6 patients from 4 unrelated families with an autosomal recessive osteoclast-poor form of osteopetrosis (OPTB2; 259710) that was unresponsive to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and identified homozygosity for 3 different mutations in all affected individuals: a 5-bp deletion (602642.0001) in a consanguineous Tunisian family, a missense. Cultures were incubated at 370C in a humidified atmosphere with 5% CO2 for 7-21 days. Culture of spleen cells was similar to that of bone marrow cells but with 5 x 105 cells per ml. Colonies derived from putative osteoclast progenitors were identified by staining for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAPase) activity
Each osteocyte is located in a space called a The cell responsible for bone resorption, or breakdown, is the osteoclast. They are found on bone surfaces, are multinucleated, and originate from monocytes and macrophages, two types of white blood cells, not from osteogenic cells. Osteoclasts are continually breaking down old bone while. Cytogenetic location: 19q13.42 Genomic coordinates (GRCh38): 19:54,094,667-54,100,802 (from NCBI) induced expression of Oscar by binding directly to specific sites in its promoter region during mouse osteoclast differentiation. Nfatc1, Mitf , and Pu.1 (SPI1; 165170. Osteoclast: A cell that nibbles at and breaks down bone and is responsible for bone resorption. Osteoclasts are large multinucleate cells (cells with more than one nucleus) that differentiate from another type of cell called a macrophage.. In normal bone, bone formation and bone resorption are closely coupled processes involved in the normal remodeling of bone
(Similarities and Differences between Osteoblast and Osteoclast) Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts are the two types of bone cells which constitute the bone tissue or the osseous tissue. The bone is a metabolically active tissue consisting of several types of cells among which the Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts are the most important ones Osteoclastic bone resorption depends on both the capacity to generate osteoclasts (osteoclastogenesis) and on individual osteoclast activity. The investigators objective is to study the effect of anti-TNF therapy on the number of osteoclast precursors in the peripheral blood of patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis, on in vitro osteoclastogenesis and on osteoclast activity before and during the.
The dynamic nature of bone means that new tissue is constantly formed, and old, injured, or unnecessary bone is dissolved for repair or for calcium release. The cell responsible for bone resorption, or breakdown, is the osteoclast. They are found on bone surfaces, are multinucleated, and originate from monocytes and macrophages, two types of. Gross Anatomy of Bones. A long bone has two main regions: the diaphysis and the epiphysis ( Figure 6.3.1). The diaphysis is the hollow, tubular shaft that runs between the proximal and distal ends of the bone. Inside the diaphysis is the medullary cavity, which is filled with yellow bone marrow in an adult Bone histology. The strength, shape and stability of the human body are dependent on the musculoskeletal system. The most robust aspect of this unit is the underlying bony architecture. Bone is a modified form of connective tissue which is made of extracellular matrix, cells and fibers .. PROPERTIES: Some important properties of macrophages are-. Macrophages contain many types of surface receptors on their plasma membrane like- complement receptors for complement protein binding 7/14/2021 Osteoclast - Wikipedia 1/8 Osteoclast Light micrograph of an osteoclast displaying typical distinguishing characteristics: a large cell with multiple nuclei and a foamy cytosol. Illustration showing a single osteoclast Details Precursor osteoclast progenitors Location Bone Function Breakdown of bone tissue Identifiers Latin osteoclastus Osteoclast An osteoclast (from Ancient Greek.
The receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (RANK) is located on the cell membrane of the osteoclast precursor cells. The binding of RANKL and RANK induces the monocytes to develop into the osteoclastic lineage Location. The simple cuboidal epithelium is mostly found in the lining of glands (organs that produce substances), and is not common on exposed surfaces. It is also found in the ducts that transport the secretions produced by a gland to the organ it is intended for, such as in ducts connecting salivary glands to the mouth, sweat glands to the. Mathematical model predicts a critical role for osteoclast autocrine regulation in the control of bone remodeling Svetlana V. Komarova,a,* Robert J. Smith,b S. Jeffrey Dixon,a Stephen M. Sims,a and Lindi M. Wahlb a CIHR Group in Skeletal Development and Remodeling, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology and Division of Oral Biology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western.
Osteoblasts and osteoclasts are types of cells the human body uses to repair broken bones. Osteoclasts break down old bone tissue allowing osteoblasts to replace it with new material. Together, these cells facilitate bone mending and bone growth. Osteoblasts are single nuclei cells that operate in groups to form bone Specialized Cells in the Skeletal System. The human skeleton is composed mainly of a substance called bone, and there are primarily four types of cells that make up bone. These are the osteoprogenitor cells, osteoblasts, osteoclasts and osteocytes. Their names all start with the prefix osteo, which is the Greek word for bone
Furthermore, we tested osteoclast stimulation with the intracellular metabolite β-glucosylceramide (β-GlcCer), a DAMP ligand for Mincle, which is located in the endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi apparatus of the cell and is released into the extracellular milieu upon necrotic cell death Osteoporosis is a chronic, progressive disease of multifactorial etiology (see Etiology) and is the most common metabolic bone disease in the United States.It has been most frequently recognized in postmenopausal women, persons with small bone structure, the elderly, and in Caucasians and person of Asians background, although it does occur in both sexes, all races, and all age groups
These data indicate a preferential association between the location of Th17 T cells and sites of pH drop and support our concept that Th17, but not Th1, mediates bone-resorptive acid secretion from mature osteoclasts at local sites of T cell-osteoclast contact Besides cortical and spongy bone tissues, bones contain several other tissues, including blood vessels and nerves. In addition, bones contain bone marrow and periosteum. You can see these tissues in Figure 14.4. 2. Bone marrow is a soft connective tissue that is found inside a cavity, called the marrow cavity The current video documentation depicts the sculptures at original location Exchange Flags. Teresa Solar presented a newly commissioned outdoor installation, titled Osteoclast (I do not know how I came to be on board this ship, this navel of my ark) (2021). Composed of five kayaks, each sculptural piece reflects on the shape of a human bone
osteoclastoma: [ too´mor ] 1. swelling or morbid enlargement; this is one of the cardinal signs of inflammation . 2. a new growth of tissue in which cell multiplication is uncontrolled and progressive. Tumors are also called neoplasms , which means that they are composed of new and actively growing tissue. Their growth is faster than that of. However, their functions in osteoclast differentiation are not clearly known. Therefore, we conducted a series of experiments to characterize a protein from this family, Cpeb4, using cell cultures.
J:76221 Kim N, et al., A novel member of the leukocyte receptor complex regulates osteoclast differentiation. J Exp Med. 2002 Jan 21;195(2):201- These cells have the ability to separate and travel to different locations through bone marrow or blood, and then to recombine to form new osteoclasts. The researchers have named this process osteoclast recycling. We know that osteomorphs are distinct cells from osteoclasts because of the way they activate genes. Our genes contain specific.
OCSTAMP, osteoclast stimulatory transmembrane protein Synonyms C20orf123, dJ257E24.3, OC-STAM osteoporosis; bone homeostasis; osteoblast; osteoclast; chemokine; During bone remodeling, which is needed to maintain skeletal rigidity and stability, osteoblasts and osteoclasts form a functional unit to achieve a balance of bone resorption and formation ().Deficiencies in this bone cell coupling, e.g., by excess osteoclast activity, lead to reduced bone mineral density and increased bone. Histopathological findings of the urinary bladder leiomyosarcoma with osteoclast-like multinucleated giant cells. a, b Hematoxylin and eosin-stained (HE) shows a tumour composed of spindle cells with blunt-ended, cigar-shaped nuclei and copious eosinophilic cytoplasm without marked cellular atypia. The most striking feature is the presence of numerous multinucleated, osteoclast-like giant.
Osteoblastoma is a benign (noncancerous) bone tumor. It is a rare tumor that often develops in the bones of the spine, as well as the legs, hands, and feet. Adolescents and young adults are most often affected by osteoblastoma. The tumors typically appear between the ages of 10 and 30 years, and are twice as common in males as in females In contrast, osteoclast-like giant cells have over 20 centrally located nuclei, and are found primarily in the advancing edges of the infiltrating tumour mass or in the lumen of the cribriform epithelial ducts, and in fine needle aspiration smears the osteoclast-like giant cells are intimately admixed with malignant epithelial cells Bone-resorbing osteoclasts are multinucleated cells that are formed via fusion of their hematopoietic stem cells. Many of the details of osteoclast formation, activation and motility remain unsolved. Therefore, there is an interest among bone biologists to transfect the terminally differentiated osteoclasts and follow their responses to the transgenes in vitro Undifferentiated carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells (UC-OGC) is an extremely uncommon pancreatic neoplasm that comprises less than 1% of all exocrine pancreatic tumors. To date, cases and data from whole-exome sequencing (WES) analysis have been reported by specific studies. We report a case of pancreatic UC-OGC with a literature review, and provide novel insights into the molecular. Phagocytosis (phago=eat, cyte=cell) is a fundamental biological process, where organisms, cells and/or particles are literally eaten or engulfed and digested. When a macrophage encounters an outsider, it extends its cell membrane around the particle, drawing the particle into itself. It then forms a vesicle called a phagosome Paget disease is a localized disorder of bone remodeling that typically begins with excessive bone resorption followed by an increase in bone formation.  This osteoclastic overactivity followed by compensatory osteoblastic activity leads to a structurally disorganized mosaic of bone (woven bone), which is mechanically weaker, larger, less compact, more vascular, and more susceptible to.